By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical info mentioned during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accumulated in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language was once in 1962, while I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to collect info on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate pupil at the
University of Texas, hired as a study assistant at the college of Chicago's Chiapas
Study initiatives, directed by way of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and somewhere else in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, frequently within the type of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from numerous languages. The pattern incorporated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who used to be later to develop into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the undertaking wound down, I again to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate stories in
Anthropology on the college of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas undertaking fabrics in McQuown's information, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational yr I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had accrued and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the top of the summer season of 1964, with aid from a countrywide safeguard schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. by way of the end
of August I had reduced in size an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we all started paintings in earnest. From then until eventually September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days per week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco may cross domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We begun through reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my mistakes of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. even as Francisco realized to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey record (a roughly 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it appears designed by means of Kaufman for the Chicago initiatives, took benefit of the CVC
shape of so much Mayan roots, and concerned producing the checklist of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary according to each one. One good thing about this method is that it elicits
vocabulary that may in a different way now not happen to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic kinds in addition to hardly heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to checklist narratives.
Francisco might dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated by means of me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i might move over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. all of the lexical fabric accrued via those ideas was once wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to assemble crops within the Cuchumatanes, together with particularly the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been large cloud woodland. We accumulated for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis amassed the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so on. and feedback at the crops. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the crops and their ethnobotanical type (in phrases of the kinds 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in keeping with my box notes we amassed 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those info went into my lexical slip documents, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that ebook are included during this dictionary.
In might of 1965 Francisco and that i performed a two-week dialect survey of the world in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj used to be spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and the city middle, a complete of 27 questionnaires. numerous texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric used to be incorporated
into my lexical records. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i accrued extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The choice of plant names encouraged me to gather animal names to boot, and to take
notes on their local type. Absent box paintings at the venture, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box courses to the birds. the various names were gathered in the course of the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the strategy of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj procedure of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent periods, and Francisco went during the lexical records and further the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had received the topographical maps for the area of
Huehuetenango (Dirección common de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position via position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of that have been garbled within the Spanish models (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost unavoidably transcribed Ix-). i finally brought to the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected record, for what that was once worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names used to be later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and the entire position names
were further to my lexical documents. The Spanish position names pronounced listed below are the authentic names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección basic de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate scholar in Geology from LSU was once residing in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out many of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his examine and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes by way of him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and talk about extra initiatives. With Francisco's aid, they gathered close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj quarter, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate pupil (in the sector engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a couple of comparative research of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan used to be for Chris to collect and evaluate the
vocabularies, Brent to write down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to learn the grammars. in simple terms the grammatical research reached e-book (Hopkins 1970).
However, the entire info I had generated in regards to the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a task educating Anthropology on the collage of Texas
in Austin, and endured to strategy my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a yr in Milwaukee, the place she have been instructing, after which lower back to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in want of box education and learn on languages in the direction of Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had started to keep on with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, now not Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, whilst I bought a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the United States (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. besides my transcribed box Notes and box images, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in glossy functional orthography, will whole this
The assortment contains the entire recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements suggested right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil conflict (Manz 1988:83-89). it truly is my goal so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric besides, together with large notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely on hand to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary can be additional to the collection.
In the summer season of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip records, untouched seeing that approximately 1970. Over the following couple of months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now respectable Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include the entire info on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Extra info for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
Us wa', n ('ixim). Plant name. , San Mateo and aldeas), but not in hot country. Round yellow grain. Zea mays. 'utanih, vin. To do something. Cf. 'utej. Ex: malaj mach tz'utanih, There's no one to do it. malaj mach 'ol 'utan wal winh, There's no one who will do it to him. 'utej, vtr. To do something. = k'ulej. Ex: tas kutej, What do we do? 'utz, n (winh, 'ix). Kin term (women's speech): A distant, but known, relative. The exact relationship is not known, but it is known they they are related somehow to father, grandfather, etc.
Ex: yixim chitam, his fattened pig; yixim chitamil, the fat pig amongst a group. 'ixim paj 'ich, n phrase ('anh). A small tomato like "tomate de riñón," koyem paj 'ich. Physalis species. Spanish "tomatillo chiquitillo," Ground Cherry. 'ixim te', n (te'). A tree (tete') of the montaña, not used except for firewood. Small leaves, 1" long, almond-shaped and thick. Cf. chak 'ixim te'. Br 8612. Microtropis species. 'ix chikin, n. Kin term: grandson. See 'i(n) chikin. 'ixkolah, n ('anh). Plant name. < Spanish "cola," glue.
Oxe'ej, vtr. To divide something into three parts. 'oxe'ok, num. About three. 'oxej, n. Three days from now. 'oxe xchawinak, num phrase. Twenty-three; three in the second score. 'oxe xchawinh k'inh, num phrase. Twenty-three days. 'oxjih, n. Three days ago. 'oxlajunhe', num. Thirteen (non-animals). Cf. 'oxlajunh wa'anh. 'oxlajunh 'el, num phrase. Thirteen times. = 'oxlajunhel. Cf. 'elih. 'oxlajunh wa'anh, num phrase. Thirteen animals or people. = 'oxlajunh wanh. 'oxlajunh winak, num phrase. Two hundred sixty, thirteen score.