By Zygmunt Frajzyngier
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed primary Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic process, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all sensible domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is kind of assorted from the constitution of alternative Chadic languages defined so far in either the formal capacity and the services which have been grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses referring to varieties and services. The grammar is written in a method obtainable to linguists operating inside of varied theoretical frameworks.
The phonology is characterised through a wealthy consonantal approach, a 3 vowel process, and a tone approach. The language has ample vowel insertion ideas and a vowel concord process. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 ideas permit the parsing of the clause into materials. The language has 3 varieties of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The damaging paradigms of verbs range from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.
The pronominal affixes and wide process of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic kinfolk in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can keep on with various materials. The grammatical function of that argument is coded by way of inflectional markers at the verb and so much curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical relatives further to verbs are varied for various periods of verbs.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Wandala
The unmarked pronunciation of the vowel is [+low] and [+back] in most environments: tàtà ‘place’, mbà ‘compound, home’, wándàlà ‘Wandala’, nárwàndzà ‘story’. Underlying a 43 The underlying a becomes the mid front [e] when preceding the palatal glide, and optionally when following the palatal glide y: a → e/ y. Thus the first-person singular subject pronoun ya is realized as [ye] or [ya]. e. a + w → o/___C. In the following example the verb sà ‘come’ is followed by the ventive extension w. ’ tà sà-w 3PL come-VENT ‘the assembly came’ mbàr skè altogether like (POL) ɮàmá assembly → [tà s-ò ɮàmá] When w is followed by a vowel it does not cause rounding of the preceding a.
The system of aspects in negative clauses is different from aspects in affirmative clauses in that it consists of a completive and non-completive distinction. The non-completive aspect is coded by the form Pro V(root) NEG. The completive aspect is coded by the form V-a-Pro NEG. Within the noncompletive aspect there is a distinction between the unmarked and specific present tense. Prohibitive predication has the root form of the verb with high tone followed by the negative marker kà. 18 Questions There is a fundamental difference between the coding of polar questions and the coding of content questions.
No examples of phrase-final consonants are given, because no consonant can occur in this position. Labials p The voiceless labial stop, like all other voiceless stops, is unaspirated. páɬ’è ‘short, brief’, pə̀ʃà ‘milk (V)’, ə́pʃə̀pʃà ‘grill (meat, peanuts)’, pàcàkálè ‘pubic apron’, pàtàrì ‘skirt’. b bá ‘say’, bìdàlà ‘adolescence (of donkeys and horses only)’. There are no instances of [b] in intervocalic position within a morpheme. In intervocalic position across morphemes and with no pause in between, the underlying b is realized as a geminated voiced continuant [vv]: tà bú kùrd-á → [tàvvúkùrdá] 3PL two all-GEN ‘Both of them .