Piton de los angeles Fournaise and Karthala are either guard volcanoes within the southwest Indian Ocean. This e-book summarizes the paintings performed on those very lively basaltic volcanoes. Piton de l. a. Fournaise has a protracted background of clinical learn and tracking, with many facts accumulated in the course of fresh eruptions. it's one in every of the main studied volcanoes on the earth. The paintings provided during this monograph contains geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrological elements, but in addition stories on actual geography, ordinary risks and the sociological and behavioural approaches.'
The Karthala volcano will be much less popular, however it serves as an enticing comparability to Piton de los angeles Fournaise. even if located on the subject of the volcanoes of Hawaii, it differs from them by means of its extra alkaline magmas and no more widespread task. It was once additionally monitored for greater than 25 years, generating impressive eruptions lately.
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Extra resources for Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala (Active Volcanoes of the World)
ERUPTING CONE ON KILAUEA Lava is seen here fountaining out of a secondary, or parasitic, cone on the ﬂank of Kilauea, a shield volcano in Hawaii. Kilauea is one of the world’s most active volcanoes – it has been erupting continually since 1983. S HIE LD VOLCANOES LAVA LAKE The summit of Erta Ale in Ethiopia contains pits that are often ﬁlled with lava lakes. The lake surface seen here has a dark skin of solid lava, but splits have appeared in it, revealing the searingly hot, bright, molten lava underneath.
Geologists constantly monitor the ﬂoor for any upward bulging that could indicate an imminent eruption. 56 V O L C A N O ES MAARS Also known as volcanic explosion craters, maars are shallow bowl-shaped volcanic craters, usually sunk slightly into the ground. These relatively small volcanic features are often filled with water to form circular lakes – the word “maar” is a German word derived originally from the Latin word “mare” (sea). FORMATION AND SIZE Maars are produced when magma (melted rock) reaches Earth’s surface and comes into contact with groundwater or, in polar regions, ice-laden permafrost (frozen soil).
STRUCTURE OF YELLOWSTONE CALDERA A large magma chamber lies about 8km (5 miles) below the caldera. Uplifting of the rock dome above the magma chamber (called a resurgent dome) or a big increase in earthquake activity could herald a new eruption. caldera ﬂoor occasional small earthquakes crustal stretching brittle crust more plastic, deformable region of crust water circulation magma chamber mantle S UPE RVO LCANOES 55 THE TOBA ERUPTION About 74,000 years ago, Lake Toba in Sumatra was the site of the largest volcanic eruption of the past two million years.