By Richard J. Reece
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Additional info for Analysis of Genes and Genomes
Another promising marker system known as diversity arrays technology (DArT) is now available (Jaccoud et al. 2001). Advantages of this marker system include high-throughput, highly automatic, and known sequence is not required. For these reasons, it has been widely used in genetic map constructions and gene mapping in wheat. The SNP marker system (Brookes et al. 1999; Rafalski et al. 2002), on the other hand, is the most common variant in the genomes of all species and thus is more valuable than SSR markers in building high-density genetic map, ﬁne 8 1 The Concept and Research Progress of Quantitative Traits mapping of targeted genes, and gene cloning.
Cross-incompatibility). A permanent BC1FX population can be created via the repeated selﬁngs of each individual line in BC1. 3 DH Population Doubled haploid (DH) lines are normally created through in vitro cultured anthers/immature microspores or ovaries/ovules (representing male or female gametes, respectively) followed by genome doublings (Fig. 1). Therefore, each DH Fig. ” The advantages of such populations include the following: (1) they can be used for multiple experiments to minimize the experimental errors and (2) can be planted under various environments and in multiple years to study interactions between genotype and environment as DH lines are the most ideal materials.
4 Progress and Prospect of QTL Mapping 11 design breeding (breeding by design). Molecular design breeding uses bioinformatics as its platform, genomics and proteomics database as its basis, and integrates the information on genetics, physiology, biochemistry, and biological statistics. Based on these data and breeding objectives and developmental environment required by any speciﬁc crops, one can design breeding program prior to conducting the real experiment. Speciﬁcally, molecular design breeding process includes screening polymorphic markers, constructing marker linkage maps, evaluating quantitative trait phenotypes, analyzing QTLs, obtaining and then assembling breeding elements of the speciﬁc QTL traits, and ﬁnally conducting ﬁeld selections.