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By A.L. Septier

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Example text

It should be emphasized that we are discussing a case where ground has uniform conductivity, but in practical situations there are several layers in the soil having different conductivity and permittivity. Sunde in his book [4] has proposed the ways to calculate the ground impedance under such circumstances. e. lack of information regarding thickness of layers, proper ground conductivity, etc. Sunde [4] and Vance [5] mention that uncertainties in the soil conditions could cause around 20% errors in the analysis.

Z g ( jw)   Z g ( jw)  z(t ) = L−1  = F −1     jw   jw  (28) Using the initial value theorem, it is easier to find the transient ground impedance value at t = 0, which is necessary for FDTD calculations (to be discussed later). lim z(t ) = lim S t →0 S →∞ Z g (S ) S (29) It is clear that based on eqn (29) the value of transient ground impedance at zero time is eqn (22) for self or mutual impedance as the case may be. It is important to mention that in the literature there are no time domain expressions for transient ground impedance (28).

A. , On the contribution of the electromagnetic field components in field-to-transmission lines interaction, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 37, pp. 505–508, 1995. , Ianoz, M. , Influence of a lossy ground on lightning-induced voltages on overhead lines, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 38, pp. 250–263, 1996. R. , Wiley: New York, 1994. , Ianoz, M. , Importance of losses in the determination of lightning-induced voltages on overhead lines. EMC ’96 ROMA. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Univ.

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