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By Stephen C. McCluskey

Historians have lengthy well-known that the rebirth of technological know-how in twelfth-century Europe flowed from a look for old clinical texts. yet this seek presupposes wisdom and curiosity; we simply search what we all know to be useful. The emergence of scholarly curiosity after centuries of obvious stagnation turns out paradoxical. This e-book resolves that seeming contradiction by means of describing 4 energetic traditions of early medieval astronomy: one divided the yr via watching the solar; one other computed the date of Easter complete Moon; the 3rd decided the time for monastic prayers through observing the process the celebs; and the classical culture of geometrical astronomy supplied a framework for the cosmos. almost all these astronomies have been functional; they sustained the groups within which they flourished and mirrored and strengthened the values of these groups. those astronomical traditions prompted the quest for old studying that ended in the clinical Renaissance of the 12th century.

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Alternatively, they mark the sorstices and equinoxes, in which *trinox samoni sindiu marks the mid-quarter festival of Samhain. i monesteries the seasone were divided at the mid-quarter deys, Columbanus's monestic Rrle, written before 615, the fint of November the beginning of winter. " The relations between the two of nrajor divisions of the year, the solstices and equinoxes, and the days between them are depicted in &vo near§ identical ninth-centtlry astro- Éd 7 November,', ln many lrirh , and lunar phenomena.

C. they established a cou of all Gaul at Lugdunum, thus continuing this greâr assembly under Roman 67. M. MacNeill, Lughnasa, pp. 339-344; Metical Dinilsenchas, ttol. 2-25, 469-48o. 68. The time of year of these pre-christian assemblies is not known, although Bede's account 69. 70. 7r. t Paulinus's visit to Yeavering rules out springtime. Bede, Hist. r4; Brian Hope-T Yeaueing: An Anglo-British cente of Early Northumbria, Department of the Environment Arc ological Reports, 7 (London: Her Majesry's Stationery Otrtce, rg7), pp.

The greâtest assembly, over by claimants to the kingship of ail lreland, continued from preihristian times at Tailtiu (modem Teltown) in Counÿ Meath. It has no strong €lhristian associations, although a seventh-century account places St. Patrick at tlte rssembly two centuries earlier. uu An eleventh-century âccount of another Lughnasa assembly, at Carman, lponsored by the king of Leinster, adds an economic element to the actiüties: Iuociation with Christian Three busy markets on the ground, a market of food, a market of live stock, ôr Cogitosus, Sanctae Brigidae uita, 39.

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