By George M. Hidy
Atmospheric Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides offers an intensive synthesis of the examine on atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxide chemistry on geographically huge scales, with unique emphasis at the tools and problems of building source-receptor relationships. The ebook addresses the significance of long-range air shipping, the position of ozone and oxidant chemistry, and it examines analytical equipment and pollutant shipping versions. this article particularly covers
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Extra resources for Atmospheric Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides. Eastern North American Source-Receptor Relationships
9 lists concentrations of components in aerosol particles measured at three eastern rural locations. Data from two of the sites are segregated into coarse and fine particle fractions. There are similarities at all three locations, namely in SO4", NH4", acidity, and calcium level. Differences appear in carbon content, silicon, and certain other metals. 2 illustrates the identified contributions by mass of the finely divided particle fraction during January and July 1978, based on aggregated data obtained from selected SURE sites.
The deposition velocity depends on wind speed and roughness of the surface. Estimates of surface roughness are based on terrain, vegetation, and density and height of buildings in large metropolitan areas. Values of roughness based on aerodynamic criteria vary widely from 0 to 800 cm. Surface roughness changes seasonally because of vegetation growth or leaf loss, as well as the blanketing effects of snow cover. Snow cover and moisture also influence absorption of soluble gases, such as S0 2 . Vegetation cover varies widely over ENA.
In general, precipitation occurs only about onethird of the days in the midlatitudes. , Pruppacher, 1986). Dry removal of gases and particles at ground level depends on the concentration of airborne material in air adjacent to the surface as well as a rate coefficient for mass transfer (deposition velocity) across the surface and the biological resistance to exchange (Appendix A). Ambient concentrations of contaminants vary widely. However, dry deposition is usually most intense near sources where ambient concentrations are high.