By Mathieu Ossendrijver
This e-book includes new translations and a brand new research of the approach texts of Babylonian mathematical astronomy, the earliest recognized kind of mathematical astronomy of the traditional international. The translations are according to a contemporary procedure incorporating contemporary insights from Assyriology and translation technological know-how.
The paintings comprises up to date and improved interpretations of the astronomical algorithms and investigations of formerly missed linguistic, mathematical and different facets of the process texts.
Special recognition is paid to problems with mathematical illustration and over a hundred photographs of cuneiform capsules relationship from 350-50 BCE are presented.
In 2-3 years, the writer intends to proceed his learn of Babylonian mathematical astronomy with a brand new e-book so as to include new versions and reconstructions of approx. 250 tabular texts and a brand new philological, astronomical and mathematical research of those texts. Tabular texts are finish items of Babylonian math astronomy, computed with algorithms which are formulated within the current quantity, technique Texts.
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Additional info for Babylonian Mathematical Astronomy: Procedure Texts
All datable procedure texts were written between year 5 of Philip Arrhidaeus (319/8 BC) and the year SE 202 (110/109 BC) in the Parthian era. The tabular texts cover a wider span of time, but most of them date from SE 120– 210. 71 However, since the underlying algorithms appear to have reached their ﬁnal form at the end of the Achaemenid era, many of the extant procedure texts may be copies of originals composed before the Seleucid era. 4), and several tablets containing the remark ‘break’ (Akk.
Hıpu, written hi-pi) or ‘new break’ (hi˘ ˘ ˘ pi2 e˘s-˘su),72 which signiﬁes that the tablet was copied from a damaged original. 2). Procedures copied from the same template differ only with regard to the numerical parameters. The composition of a tablet can also provide clues about copying activities. No. 52 contains procedures for lunar system K, which is believed to reﬂect a pre-Seleucid stage of development, but other procedures on that tablet belong to lunar system A. It can therefore be assumed that the system-K procedures were copied from an older tablet, perhaps because they had an antiquarian value.
80 Babylonian astronomy, as opposed to those forms of Greek mathematical astronomy developed by Hipparchos and Ptolemy, is said to lack an underlying ‘theory’ involving concepts and causal relations that are capable of explaining the phenomena. By contrast, Greek mathematical astronomy is seen as achieving its predictions on the basis of models, derived from physical concepts with the axiomatic-deductive method also known from the Elements of Euclid. Recent investigations have resulted in a more diverse picture of Greek astronomy, in particular the discovery of Babylonian methods in the Greek astrological papyri from Oxyrhynchus (Jones 1999).