Download Beliefs and Leadership in World Politics: Methods and by Mark Schafer, Stephen G. Walker PDF

By Mark Schafer, Stephen G. Walker

This e-book examines how ideals form leaders’ perceptions of truth and bring about cognitive and influenced biases that distort, block, and recast incoming info from the surroundings. utilizing content material research and formal modeling equipment linked to quantitative operational code research, members examine how ideals have an effect on regulations regarding foreign safety and foreign political financial system.

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We assume that the leader’s images of other actors’ policies and actions reflect the leader’s beliefs about politics, political conflict, and the nature of other actors. We compute a simple ratio of the frequency of positive to negative utterances the leader makes when talking about others in the political universe. 7 The specific formula for the P-1 index is the percentage of positive utterances about others minus the percentage of negative utterances about others. Prospects for Realizing Fundamental Values (P-2): Optimism versus Pessimism This index and the ones for the remaining philosophical beliefs are related in part to P-1 as a master belief.

We simply compute the use of each separate verb category as a percentage of total verbs coded when the subject is talking about self. Each index varies from 0 to 1, with lower scores indicating less utility and higher scores indicating more utility for each form of the exercise of power. The six formulae are as follows: I-5 Punish: The sum of all self utterances coded as “Punish” divided by the sum of all self utterances. I-5 Threaten: The sum of all self utterances coded as “Threaten” divided by the sum of all self utterances.

It is necessary, therefore, that we distinguish in our content analysis system when the subject is talking about self and when he or she is talking about others. This distinction is relatively simple to make in verbal material by looking at the grammatical subject of the verb: either the speaker is talking 32 CONTENT ANALYSIS AND FORMAL MODELS about others in the political universe or about self (and other in-group actors with which he or she identifies and over which he or she has some control or influence).

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