By T Kokubo
Bioceramics were used very effectively in the human physique for a few years. they're general in orthopaedic surgical procedure and dentistry yet they're possibly appropriate for a variety of very important functions in the scientific machine undefined. this crucial booklet experiences the variety of bioceramics, their houses and diversity of medical uses.
Chapters within the first part of the publication discusses problems with importance to a number of bioceramics resembling their constitution, mechanical houses and organic interactions. the second one half stories the fabrication, microstructure and homes of particular bioceramics and glasses, focusing on the main promising fabrics. those comprise alumina and zirconia ceramics, bioactive glasses and bioactive glass-ceramics, calcium sulphate, tricalcium phosphate-based ceramics, hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic ceramics, si-substrated hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate cement, calcium phosphate coating, titania-based fabrics, ceramic-polymer composites, dental ceramics and dental glass-ceramics. the ultimate workforce of chapters experiences the scientific purposes of bioceramics in joint alternative, bone grafts, tissue engineering and dentistry.
Bioceramics and their medical purposes is written via major lecturers from world wide and it offers an authoritative overview of this hugely lively quarter of study. This booklet is an invaluable source for biomaterials scientists and engineers, in addition to for clinicians and the tutorial community.
- Provides an authoritative evaluation of this hugely lively sector of research
- Discusses problems with value of various bioceramics reminiscent of their constitution, mechanical houses and organic interactions
- Reviews the scientific functions of bioceramics in joint alternative, bone grafts, tissue engineering and dentistry
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Additional resources for Bioceramics and Their Clinical Applications
WPNL2204 The structure and mechanical properties of bone 25 Danova N A, Colopy S A, Radtke C L, Kalscheur V L, Markel M D, Vanderby R Jr, McCabe R P, Escarcega A J and Muir P (2003), ‘Degradation of bone structural properties by accumulation and coalescence of microcracks’, Bone, 33, 197– 205 Day J S, Ding M, Bednarz P, van der Linden J C, Mashiba T, Hirano T, Johnston C C, Burr D B, Hvid I, Sumner D R and Weinans H (2004), ‘Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties’, J Orth Res, 22, 465–471.
368–377) and there is no consensus yet as to the cause or causes, although taking out microcracks is certainly one function. For our purposes it is sufficient to note that newly laid down bone is less highly mineralised than older bone. The process of mineralisation in bone is rapid at first but then slows, approaching its final state asymptotically. This is because as the bone becomes mineralised the rate of diffusion of ions through the tissue of the bone inevitably declines. As a result secondary osteones are more highly mineralised near their core, where the blood channel is, and are less highly mineralised at the periphery.
Ostwald ripening is one of the coarsening phenomena based on the difference of the solubility among the crystals of various sizes. When the crystals are precipitated from the supersaturated solution, the larger ones grow and the smaller ones dissolve with time to reduce the interfacial free energy. This effect usually appears just before reaching the equilibrium state. Here, the total volume of the crystals is kept during the ripening while crystal numbers decrease with time. WPNL2204 32 Bioceramics and their clinical applications For several bioceramics, the wet-chemical process is regarded as the best synthesis method; commercialized HA powders are generally obtained from mixed solutions of calcium and phosphate salts via the precipitation method, the hydrothermal method, the spray or gel pyrolysis method, etc.