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By Wilson G.N., Schroeder B., Woo J.

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Mutant and wild-type oligonucleotides can be used as probes to analyze polymerase chain reaction products. Conversely, the products of polymerase chain reaction can be used to analyze cDNA libraries. 54. The answer is e. (Murray, pp 452–467. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 1–40. ) Despite some differences, protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is quite similar. The small ribosomal subunit is 30S in prokaryotes and 40S in eukaryotes. The large ribosomal subunit is 50S in prokaryotes and 60S in eukaryotes.

B. c. d. e. RNA-catalyzed in the absence of protein Self-splicing Carried out by spliceosomes Controlled by RNA polymerase Regulated by RNA helicase 41. A promoter site on DNA a. b. c. d. e. qxd 40 11/14/01 10:37 AM Page 40 Biochemistry and Genetics 42. The σ factor found in many bacteria is best described as a a. Subunit of RNA polymerase responsible for the specificity of the initiation of transcription of RNA from DNA b. Subunit of DNA polymerase that allows for synthesis in both 5' to 3' and 3' to 5' directions c.

2. 3. 4. 5. TFIID binding to the TATA box TFIIA binding TFIIB binding RNA polymerase II binding TFIIE binding When all these elements are bound to DNA, the basal transcription apparatus complex is formed and can transcribe DNA slowly. Other factors are required for fast, efficient mRNA synthesis. 45. The answer is d. (Murray, pp 452–467. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 1–40. ) The primary transcripts of all eukaryotic mRNAs are capped at the 5′ end. qxd 11/14/01 10:37 AM Page 53 Gene Expression Answers 53 and rRNA are not capped.

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