By Paul F. Hendrix
The papers during this booklet are in accordance with efforts by way of a global crew of soil ecologists to evaluate the organic and ecological mechanisms of earthworm invasions. They research their geographic volume and affects on terrestrial ecosystems, and attainable capacity during which earthworm invasions may be mitigated. The e-book broadens the dialogue on invasion biology and ecology to belowground systems.
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Additional resources for Biological Invasions Belowground: Earthworms as Invasive Species
Therefore a way of dating earthworm invasion would be of value, so that impacts could be examined in stands invaded some time ago. Changes in soil chemistry caused by earthworms may create some sort of tree-ring signature, and if so this would be an ideal way to date time of invasion. Because earthworm invasion has been progressing through northern forests for a century, such a dating technique would allow the construction of a chronosequence of stands with varying time since invasion by earthworms.
A ranking of earthworms species based on laboratory data on their frost tolerance (A. chlorotica < L. castaneus < L. terrestris < A. rosea £ A. caliginosa < L. rubellus < O. tyrtaeum < D. rubidus < D. octaedra £ E. nordenskioldi) closely corresponds to the broad geographical patterns of these species across the region. Species such as A. chlorotica are very frost-sensitive even as cocoons (Holmstrup and Zachariassen 1996). Cocoons, but not postembrional stages, of Aporrectodea and Lumbricus species may withstand cooling to between )5 and )8°C (Holmstrup et al.
V. Tiunov, personal observations). Likewise, in the Great Lakes region, exotic earthworms have been spread as released ﬁshing bait, as indicated by the proximity of many invasion epicenters to lakes shores, boat landings and cabins (Proulx 2003). The expansion of human activities has led to the establishment of thousands of epicenters of earthworm invasion. , Aporrectodea species,D. octaedra, D. rubidus, O. tyrtaeum) in addition to the L. terrestris and L. rubellus that are marketed (A. Holdsworth and C.