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By Kiyoshi Toko

Biomimetic sensor know-how relies at the use of biomaterials and knowledge processing of a sort utilized in organic platforms. This publication explores biomimetic sensors that could quantify taste--the digital tongue--and scent, the digital nostril. the advance of those sensors give a contribution to our figuring out of the reception mechanisms in gustatory and olfactory platforms. the writer, a pioneer within the improvement of this new expertise, starts off via describing the foundations of dimension and multivariate research. He info reception mechanisms in organic platforms and several other forms of biosensors, together with enzyme-immobilized membranes, SPR, the quartz resonance oscillator and IC applied sciences. devoted to the advance of clever sensors and structures, this unique quantity is a vital source for engineers operating during this important study zone.

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Annu. Rev. , 19, 517. 3 Biomimetic membrane devices This chapter describes biomimetic membrane devices, which were developed by utilizing a self-assembled characteristic of biomolecules. First, some typical self-organized phenomena such as rhythm and pattern formation are described, because biomimetic membrane devices work far from equilibrium. , this membrane can be regarded as an excitable model membrane or an arti®cial nerve membrane similar to natural nerve membranes. Since the frequency of self-sustained oscillations increases with increasing dc electric current and/or pressure, this membrane is a kind of dc^ac converter made of organic materials, or a chemo-mechanical receptor.

This hypothesis is supported from an experiment using liposomes12 and also the results using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes, as detailed in Chapter 6. An amiloride-sensitive ion channel may act as the Na‡ receptor. In¯ux of Na‡ induces the depolarization. However, the transduction mechanism is unclear for other alkali cations, because large salts such as FeCl3 , which cannot move through the ion channel, induce a large response. Two possibilities are considered for the transduction of sourness.

Another reason is that estimation of electric resistance of an open pore leads to a good explanation of the observed data. 4 M. Since the membrane resistance Rm is several megaohms or more at a high-resistance state, we get 5  106 M as the electric resistance of one ``closed'' pore from 106 pores by adopting, for example, a value of 5 M as Rm . 4 M. In this ``open'' state, Rm decreases to 5  3:4=…5 ‡ 3:4† ˆ 2:0 M. We can conclude that the membrane resistance Rm can change between 5 and 2 M while one pore is closed and open.

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