By Alison Galloway
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Additional info for Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma
This chapter covers the first four points while the final point is discussed in Chapters 3 through 6. BIOMECHANICS OF FRACTURE PRODUCTION Loading is the application of a force to an object. Loading forces are applied to bone from a number of different sources. In sedentary use, such 35 36 Broken Bones as standing or sitting, the weight of the body itself forms a load on the bones. This weight will vary by body size and composition and changes throughout the lifetime. The force is determined by the weight superior to each bone and calculated based on the area of contact for transmission of the load.
Matching of cadaver material must acknowledge potential differences in bone quality due to drying and/or embalming. In addition to the resistance provided by bone itself, other tissues may increase the dispersal of force from blunt trauma. For example, on the head 24 Broken Bones there is 114-112 inch of soft tissue overlying the vault (McElhaney et al. 1976) that acts as a cushion and diffuses the force applied. The tissues that form the scalp provide tensile strength of varying degTees. This resistance is less than found in the skin over much of the rest of the body since there is less underlying soft tissue to cushion the blow and allow deformation (Gurdjian 1975).
These visual presentations may be ruled inadmissible due to their possible inflammatory nature. Preparation should, therefore, include alternate means of conveying the necessary information. The issue of consultation fees should be raised with the attorney if these have not already been established. In addition to actual testimony time, consultation, including telephone calls, should be logged and charged. Expenses such as travel, hotel and communication charges should be included in the cost of hiring an expert witness in addition to the hourly or daily rates.