By R. Di Giulio
Because of alterations within the composition of the inhabitants, society alterations continually with appreciate to varied components together with age-structure, relatives composition and the supply of strength. adjustments bring about events which are mirrored within the commissioning of constructions, that is steadily shifted from new building to the reuse and upkeep of latest structures. the difference of structures frequently calls for the amendment of facades and the development at the back of. The scope of this motion in the expense delivery and concrete improvement area is to enhance innovations and strategies for envelopes of constructions developed over the last half the 20 th century within the fee nations. In different phrases it truly is directed at the construction envelopes of the so-called non-traditional constructions. This ebook relies on a aid through price, an intergovernmental eu framework for foreign cooperation among nationally funded learn actions. expense creates clinical networks and permits scientists to collaborate in a large spectrum of actions in study and technology.
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Extra resources for COST C16 Improving the Quality of Existing Urban Building Envelopes III
After the strengthening with steel rebars on the top and with CFRP on the underside of the floor, it is necessary to remove concrete from the opening by drilling and sawing. Some centimetres of the original beam will remain under the floor. The desired appearance can be obtained by designing a false ceiling about 60 mm under the concrete floor structure.
Qs = 92 ~ 100 kg/ m2 The model for analysing the entire building was created by modelling all of the reinforced concrete walls using shell elements with a thickness of 18 cm. The need to model the bracing system prevented the use of a rigid floor outline. The problem was resolved by modelling several floor levels with shell elements with a thickness of 28 cm having no density in order not to load the bracing elements that would only be activated following a seismic load. In fact, these elements are installed by connecting the various already deformed floors.
The development resulted in 1975 into building regulations, which had to be followed by architects and building contractors. The system is a fully integrated building system; it contains bearing elements, façade elements, internal finishing, staircases, bathrooms, etc. de). 5 dwellings per day. One can also find the WBS 70 buildings (or variations) in other Eastern European countries like Poland, USSR, Hungary and Czech Republic among others. The buildings are recognized by their rigid pattern of heavy weight concrete loggias on one side (Fig 1) and by the flat and boring representation of the other side.