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By Duncan Q.M. Craig

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Extra resources for Dielectric Analysis Of Pharmaceutical Systems (Pharmaceutical Science Series)

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Secondly, and more importantly for the present argument, the relationship means that vectorial quantities may be expressed as complex numbers, with one quantity being ‘real’ (cos(a)) and the other ‘imaginary’ (i sin(a)). 37) The complex variable effectively acts as a marker to separate the in-phase and out-ofphase components, as the real and imaginary components will inevitably remain distinct. This means that the expressions may undergo various manipulations, but the two phase components will be easily distinguished by the presence or absence of the i term.

For more details on bridge methods, a number of texts are available, including Hill et al. (1969), Grant et al. Methods of dielectric measurement 39 (1978) and Blythe (1979), amongst others. 2 Cell design for bridge measurements For low frequency measurements, the cells used may be coaxial or may comprise two circular cross-sectional electrodes (Lovell and Cole, 1959; Pauly and Schwan, 1966; Payne and Theoodorou, 1972), but are more usually parallel plate systems. These involve the insertion of a thin disc of solid material between parallel plates or immersion of those plates in a liquid.

These are spatial groups within a sample that show cooperative behaviour during the relaxation process. The relaxation behaviour of these clusters will affect the overall shape of the response, as well as the absolute values at any particular frequency. The authors suggested that two power law exponents were required to fit a given set of data. These two exponents (n and m) are considered to refer to the degree of cooperation within a cluster and between separate clusters, respectively, with 0

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