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By Paula Hawthorne, Jenny Wang-Holmes, Judy Cawdell-Smith, Ann E.O. Trezise

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Pv. glycinea has selected mutant AvrD proteins in order to facilitate virulence on RQg! soybean plants, it is not clear why these genes encode exactly 311 amino acids with no deletions or insertions and read entirely co-linearly with the active alleles. Characterization of the syringolides and related compounds produced by Gram negative bacteria expressing avrD. ~. syringae pv. tomato PT23 was expressed in ~. ~. pv. glycinea R4. These cells produced an extracellular factor(s) which specifically elicited the hypersensitive reaction only in soybean cultivars carrying the complementary RQg!

Pv. glycinea. Four different classes of clones were isolated which gave hypersensitive reactions on certain soybean cultivars [11,12]. J. Daniels et al. ), Advances in Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Vol. 3, 41-48. © 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 42 sequence to avrA, discussed above. This was therefore the first known case where functionally identical avirulence genes were isolated from different bacterial pathovars. §. pv. tomato library also yielded two unique classes of avirulence gene clones, called avrD and avrE [12].

These sectors are relatively stable and retain their characteristics when subcultured onto fresh medium [15]. In addition, an unstable translucent form is observed at the 27 margins of old cultures (Figure 2b) which when subcultured grows as the wild type form. Figure 2: Colonies of P. tollUlsii showing sector (a) and unstable margin (b) forms (x 10). Certain of the characteristics of P. tolaasii 1116S and 1116R are summarised in Table 1. The phenotypic variant is non-pathogenic, does not synthesise tolaasin, synthesises more siderophores, has a more rapid growth rate and a faster swim speed than the wild type [15].

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