By George Johnson
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Extra info for how the scientists think. Twenty-One Experiments that Have Shaped Our Understanding of Genetics and Molecular Biology
Coli enzyme failed to exhibit the expected levels of activity against purified E. coli DNA. Indeed, when care was taken not to fragment the bacterial DNA, the Kornberg polymerase had essentially no DNA synthesizing activity at all. More disturbingly, John Cairns went on to isolate a mutant of E. coli, which provided a clean test of the hypothesis: if DNA polymerase I (poly-I) is the principal replicating enzyme, then a poly-I negative mutant cell should not be able to replicate its DNA. Cairns succeeded in screening for a mutant of the Kornberg polymerase.
From the triplet binding assay, Khorana knew that UGU coded for CYS. Therefore, GUG must code for valine (VAL). 3). 1 Nirenberg’s experiment. 2 Khorana’s experiment. 3 The genetic code. CHAPTER 15 CHAPEVILLE: PROVING THE tRNA HYPOTHESIS In 1963, F. Chapeville and a number of collaborators used labeled amino acids to demonstrate that the specificity of tRNA molecules was not determined by the amino acids to which they were attached. HOW DOES PROTEIN TRANSLATION OCCUR? Genetic information is encoded in DNA as a sequence of three-base codons, and nucleotide information is transcribed onto messenger RNA and carried to the cytoplasmic ribosomes, where it is translated into a corresponding sequence of amino acids in a protein.
1). The bacterial ribosomes were normal and contained bacterial rRNA. The new viral RNA was something extra, not a permanent part of the ribosome, but only transiently associated with them. It was precisely the messenger RNA that their hypothesis had predicted should exist. The essence of the mRNA hypothesis is that there exists a class of RNA molecule, the “messenger,” composed of many different individual mRNA molecules, each corresponding in base sequence to a particular segment of the DNA base sequence.